La ĉi-suba teksto estas aŭtomata traduko de la artikolo Arakan Campaign 1942–43 article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2016-06-13 10:45:24. The Burma campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma. Mutaguchi, the Army commander, planned to cut off and destroy the forward divisions of IV Corps before capturing Imphal, while the Japanese 31st Division isolated Imphal by capturing Kohima. The Imphal operation was finally broken off early in July, and the Japanese retreated painfully to the Chindwin River. On 7 March, the Burma Army evacuated Rangoon after implementing a scorched earth plan to deny the Japanese the use of its facilities. The rest of the Chinese troops tried to return to Yunnan through remote mountainous forests and of these, at least half died. • naval & air aspects. On 12 July, a Thai division began to occupy Kayah State. Despatch "Operations in Assam and Burma from 23RD June 1944 to 12TH November 1944" Supplement to the London Gazette, 3 March 1951 pg 1711, Despatch "Operations in Burma 12th November 1944 to 15th August 1945" Supplement to the London Gazette, 6 April 1951 pg 1885, Despatch "Operations in Burma and North East India 16th November 1943 to 22nd June 1944" Supplement to the London Gazette, 13 March 1951 pg 1361, American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, Learn how and when to remove this template message, lines of communication in North-eastern India, Barnaby Phillips follows the life of one of the forgotten heroes of World War II, Facts on File: World War II in the China-Burma-India theater, 远征军入缅作战简介_远征军入缅作战的时间死亡人数_远征军入缅作战的意义结果损失 – 趣历史 – 趣历史, Japanese conquest of Burma, December 1941 – May 1942. The Chindits now moved from the Japanese rear areas to new bases closer to Stilwell's front, and were given additional tasks by Stilwell for which they were not equipped. • japanese capture of burma & the allied retreat. During the first year of the campaign, the Japanese Army drove British Empire and Chinese forces out of Burma, then began the Japanese occupation of Burma and formed a nominally independent Burmese administrative … Although some units arrived, counterattacks failed and the new commander of Burma Army (General Harold Alexander), ordered the city to be evacuated on 7 March after its port and oil refinery had been destroyed. They damaged communications of the Japanese in northern Burma, cutting the railway for possibly two weeks but they suffered heavy casualties. American forces under Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz had advanced across the Central Pacific Ocean, capturing the Gilbert Islands, some of the Marshall Islands, and most of the Marianas Islands, bypassing many Japan… Das erste größere Unternehmen der britisch-indischen Truppen in Burma war gegen die Küste von Arakan gerichtet. • principles of war & lessons learnt. The Japanese division advanced to Moulmein at the mouth of the Salween River which was garrisoned by the 2nd Burma Infantry Brigade. The commander of Burma Corps, Lieutenant General William Slim, tried to mount a counter-offensive on the western part of the front, but his troops were repeatedly outflanked and forced to fight their way out of encirclement. [34], Burma Corps reached Imphal in Manipur just before the monsoon broke in May 1942. [citation needed]. They were drawn primarily from British India. [citation needed], From December 1943 to November 1944 the strategic balance of the Burma campaign shifted decisively. They attempted to hold the Bilin River and other fallback lines as they did so, but had too few troops to avoid being continually outflanked. Over the next few weeks, XV Corps' offensive ended as the Allies concentrated on the Central Front. He was expecting substantial reinforcements from the Middle East, including an Australian infantry division. [citation needed], Also on 17 May, a force of two Chinese regiments, Unit Galahad (Merrill's Marauders) and Kachin guerrillas captured the airfield at Myitkyina. General Archibald Wavell, the commander-in-chief of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, nevertheless ordered Rangoon to be held as he was expecting substantial reinforcements from the Middle East. In practice, both government and army were strictly controlled by the Japanese authorities. Instead of isolating the small British garrison there and pressing on with his main force to Dimapur, Sato chose to capture the hill station. The Corps then prepared to capture two railway tunnels linking Maungdaw with the Kalapanzin valley but the Japanese struck first. The Southern Expeditionary Army Group under overall command of Hisaichi Terauchi was responsible for all military operations in the South-East Asia. Alliierte Einheiten kämpften dabei gegen Truppen des Japanischen Kaiserreichs und dessen Verbündete. Elephant Point. Burma Campaign WW2 1961 old map. The rapidly expanding Burma Independence Army harassed the Allied forces, while many Bamar soldiers of the Burma Rifles were deserting. Kimura threw Allied plans into confusion by refusing to fight at the Chindwin River. [citation needed], On the Allied side, operations in Burma over the remainder of 1942 and in 1943 were a study of military frustration. Panglong, a Chinese Muslim town in British Burma, was entirely destroyed by the Japanese invaders in their invasion of Burma. Send-to-Kindle or Email . At this stage of the war, the Allies lacked the means and tactical ability to overcome strongly constructed Japanese bunkers. [citation needed], The Japanese were influenced to an unknown degree by Subhas Chandra Bose, commander of the Indian National Army. On 28 February, he formally relieved Hutton (although Hutton had officially already been superseded in command by General Harold Alexander), and on the following day he sacked Smyth, who was in any case very ill.[25]. He therefore asked for Operation Dracula to be re-mounted at short notice. To cover this break-out, Kimura ordered Thirty-Third Army to mount a diversionary offensive across the Sittang, although the entire army could muster the strength of barely a regiment. In the spring of 1945, the other factor in the race for Rangoon was the years of preparation by the liaison organisation, Force 136, which resulted in a national uprising within Burma and the defection of the entire Burma National Army to the allied side. Chiang Kai-shek sent troops into Burma from Yunnan in 1942 to assist the British in holding back the Japanese. The naval forces for the attack on Phuket were diverted to Operation Dracula, and units of XV Corps were embarked from Akyab and Ramree. XV Corps operations on the mainland were curtailed to release transport aircraft to support Fourteenth Army. Although the division was rescued by Chinese infantry and British tanks in the Battle of Yenangyaung, it lost almost all its equipment and its cohesion. However, that view usually comes from people who have only looked at dust- smeared and stowage-covered vehicles in black and white photos. The army consisted of the highly regarded 33rd Division and the 55th Division, although both divisions were weakened for several weeks by detachments to other operations. This, together with other factors such as famine and disorder in British India and the priority given by the Allies to the defeat of Nazi Germany, prolonged the campaign and divided it into four phases: the Japanese invasion, which led to the expulsion of British, Indian and Chinese forces in 1942; failed attempts by the Allies to mount offensives into Burma, from late 1942 to early 1944; the 1944 Japanese invasion of India, which ultimately failed following the battles of Imphal and Kohima; and finally the successful Allied offensive which reoccupied Burma from late-1944 to mid-1945. The army and civil authorities in India were very slow to respond to the needs of the troops and civilian refugees. Burma had been regarded as a military "backwater", unlikely to be subjected to Japanese threat.[18]. [citation needed], By the end of May, the Yunnan offensive, though hampered by the monsoon rains and lack of air support, succeeded in annihilating the garrison of Tengchong and eventually reached as far as Longling. The Middle East was accorded priority, being closer to home and in accordance with the "Germany First" policy in London and Washington. They installed a nominally independent Burmese government under Ba Maw, and reformed the Burma Independence Army on a more regular basis as the Burma National Army under General Aung San. Die Kämpfe in Burma (heute Myanmar) begannen im Januar 1942, wenige Wochen nach dem japanischen Angriff auf Pearl Harbor und dem darauffolgenden Kriegseintritt der Vereinigten Staaten. The lack of transport infrastructure placed an emphasis on military engineering and air transport to move and supply troops, and evacuate wounded. It was occupied by XV Corps without resistance on 3 January 1945 as part of Operation Talon, the amphibious landing at Akyab. Although counter-attacks allowed the troops to escape, most of the Burma Corps' remaining equipment had to be destroyed or abandoned. With the effective collapse of the entire defensive line, there was little choice left other than an overland retreat to India or to Yunnan. Under British rule, there had been substantial economic development but the majority Bamar community was becoming increasingly restive. [39] The 23,000[40] Chinese soldiers who had retreated into India were put under the command of the American General Joseph Stilwell, who had also made his way to India on foot, and were concentrated in camps at Ramgarh in Bihar. Fourteenth Army (now under Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey) and XV Corps had returned to India to plan the next stage of the campaign to re-take Southeast Asia. [6], The campaign had a number of notable features. The campaign would have a great impact on the independence struggle of Burma and India in the post-war years. In the open terrain of Central Burma, this force outmanoeuvred the Japanese and fell on Meiktila on 1 March. The remnants of the Burma Army faced encirclement as they retreated north from the city, but broke through the Taukkyan Roadblock as the result of an error on the part of the local Japanese commander. … 33rd Division and Yamamoto Force made repeated efforts, but by the end of June they had suffered so many casualties both from battle and disease that they were unable to make any progress. A YANK ON THE BURMA ROAD, US poster, from left: Barry Nelson, Laraine Day, 1942. The retreat was delayed by incidents such as a vehicle breaking through the bridge deck, air attacks (including, allegedly, accidental attacks by the RAF and AVG), and Japanese harassment. [citation needed] Japanese reinforcements arrived from Central Burma and crossed rivers and mountain ranges which the Allies had declared to be impassable, to hit the Allies' exposed left flank and overrun several units. NELSON,DAY,CRAWFORD, A YANK ON THE BURMA ROAD, 1942. With misgivings on the part of several of Mutaguchi's superiors and subordinates, Operation U-Go was launched. On the eastern part of the front, in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road, the Chinese 200th Division held up the Japanese for a time around Toungoo, but after its fall the road was open for motorised troops of the Japanese 56th Division to shatter the Chinese Sixth Army to the east in the Karenni States and advance northward through the Shan States to capture Lashio, outflanking the Allied defensive lines and cutting off the Chinese armies from Yunnan. Three Thai infantry divisions and one cavalry division, supported by the Royal Thai Air Force, captured Kengtung on 27 May. On 22 January 1942, the main body of the Japanese 55th Division began the main attack westward from Rahaeng in Thailand across the Kawkareik Pass. Die japanischen Truppen der 15. This newly completed link was being used to move aid and munitions to the Chinese Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-Shek which had been fighting the Japanese for several years. The 1st Battalion had arrived in India in October 1938 and was stationed in Wellington, South India. The Japanese invasion of Burma began in January 1942, and Japan conducted a series of air raids over Rangoon, where the headquarters of the Burma Corps of the British Indian Army was located. NCAC resumed its advance late in 1944, although it was progressively weakened by the flyout of Chinese troops to the main front in China. Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister, appealed directly to American chief of staff George Marshall for the transport aircraft which had been assigned to NCAC to remain in Burma. The major effort was intended to be by American-trained Chinese troops of Northern Combat Area Command (NCAC) under General Joseph Stilwell, to cover the construction of the Ledo Road. Their troops suffered from supply shortages and disease, but were not subjected to Allied attacks. Dracula. Japan entered the war primarily to obtain raw materials, especially oil, from European (particularly Dutch) possessions in South East Asia which were weakly defended because of the war in Europe. General Archibald Wavell, the commander-in-chief of the ABDA Command, nevertheless ordered Rangoon to be held. [31] The Burma Corps retreated to Manipur in India. Troops of the 17th Indian Infantry Division tried to retreat over the Sittaung River, but Japanese parties reached the vital bridge before they did. [citation needed], The attempted Japanese invasion of India in 1944 was launched on unrealistic premises as after the Singapore debacle and the loss of Burma in 1942, the British were bound to defend India at all costs. Wählen Sie Ihre Cookie-Einstellungen . The leading Allied troops met Japanese rearguards north of Bago, 40 miles (64 km) north of Rangoon, on 25 April. The Japanese reinforced their two divisions in Burma with the 18th Division transferred from Malaya and the 56th Division transferred from the Dutch East Indies after the fall of Singapore and Java. [37] Most of these losses were the result of disease, malnutrition and exhaustion. The position was almost impossible to defend, and had the River Salween, almost 1.5 miles (2.4 km) wide, behind it. The most important was the replacement of General Kawabe at Burma Area Army by Hyotaro Kimura. The Japanese invasion of Burma was the opening phase of the Burma campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. The Allies were also hampered by the progressive breakdown of the civil government in the areas they held, and the large numbers of refugees. Following the capture of Rangoon, a new Twelfth Army headquarters was created from XXXIII Corps HQ to take control of the formations which were to remain in Burma. The defence operations at Kohima and Imphal in 1944 have since taken on huge symbolic value as the turning of the tide in British fortunes in the war in the East. Soon some twelve Chinese divisions of 175,000 men,[7] under General Wei Lihuang, were attacking the Japanese 56th Division. Hundreds of men drowned trying to cross the swollen Sittang on improvised bamboo floats and rafts. Save for later. General William … The retreating British and Indian troops were thrown back when they attempted to break through Sakuma's road block. Ihre Hauptaufgabe bestand in der Ausführung weiträumiger Umgehungsoperationen hinter den japanischen Linien. 33, Sino-Japanese Air War 1937–45, see 1941 and 1942, Burma Campaign, Orbat for 1942 campaign, Japan, Commonwealth, Chinese, USA, A Forgotten Invasion: Thailand in Shan State, 1941–45, Thailand's Northern Campaign in the Shan States 1942–45, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_invasion_of_Burma&oldid=1000558580, Military history of Thailand during World War II, Military history of Burma during World War II, Military history of India during World War II, Land battles and operations of World War II involving the United Kingdom, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2018, Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 16:53. Most of them stayed and defended in India, and did not participate in the counter-offensives in Burma. Most of the Japanese garrison died during the Battle of Ramree Island. The Japanese burned Panglong, driving out the over 200 Hui households out as refugees. An important objective for XV Corps was the capture of Ramree Island and Cheduba Island to construct airfields which would support the Allies' operations in Central Burma. At one stage, Alexander proposed that the 7th Armoured Brigade and one infantry brigade accompany the Chinese armies into Yunnan, but he was persuaded that the armoured brigade would quickly become ineffective once it was cut off from India. 17th Indian Division and 255th Indian Tank Brigade followed them across and struck for Meiktila. [citation needed], The loss of two brigades of 17th Indian Division meant that Rangoon could not be defended. 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