Each path suggests a different way to. These mārgas are part of different schools in Hinduism, and their definition and methods to moksha. హాయ్, మీరు NBT ను IE11 వెర్షన్‌లో చూస్తున్నట్టు ఉంది. Self-discipline is the path to dharma, moksha is self-discipline that is so perfect that it becomes unconscious, second nature. Brahma, Shiva, the Siddhas, the silent sages and Indra - I seek only the Blessed Vision of my Lord and Master's Darshan. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1. Moksha means liberation, the realization of the Self, and is the ultimate destination of this human birth. It is the middle and later Upanishads, such as the Svetasvatara and Maitri, where the word moksha appears and begins becoming an important concept.[13][31]. [21], Vivekachudamani, which literally means "Crown Jewel of Discriminatory Reasoning", is a book devoted to moksa in Vedanta philosophy. 145-161. [78], The Advaita tradition considers moksha achievable by removing avidya (ignorance). The Vedas suggest three goals of man: kama, artha and dharma. Svetasvatara Upanishad, another middle era Upanishad written after Kathaka Upanishad, begins with questions such as why is man born, what is the primal cause behind the universe, what causes joy and sorrow in life? [103][note 2] It is part of the Four Noble Truths doctrine of Buddhism, which plays an essential role in Theravada Buddhism. Many schools of Hinduism thus understood dharma and moksha as two points of a single journey of life, a journey for which the viaticum was discipline and self-training. బీఎండబ్ల్యూ 2 సిరీస్ గ్రాన్ కూపే పెట్రోల్ వేరియంట్ లాంచ్.. ధర ఎంతంటే? [36][37] Kathaka Upanishad also explains the role of yoga in personal liberation, moksha. Variations of this names are Moksha. Knowledge was the means, the ritual its application. Symbolic Meaning The tale of Gajendra is an integral theme in Vaishnavism and has great symbolic value: Gajendra is the man, the crocodile is sin, and the muddy water of the lake is Saṃsāra . Moksha in the theory of reincarnation means the riddance from repeated births in this world and living in a state of Bliss with God. One of three qualities or habits of an individual; sattvam represents spiritual purity; sattvic people, claims Samkhya school, are those who see world's welfare as a spiritual principle. gajendra moksha stuti with telugu lyrics((srimad bhagavatantargata) Learn more about the Telugu language in this article. Such realization, claims Svetasvatara, come from self-knowledge and self-discipline; and this knowledge and realization is liberation from transmigration, the final goal of the Upanishad.[40]. It has to be a state of thought and consciousness that excludes action. Harris, Albany, NY, pp 243-255, R.K. Tripathi (1982), Advaita Vedanta and Neoplatonism, in "Neoplatonism and Indian thought", Ed: R.B. [80] The Brahmasutrabhasya adds to the above four requirements, the following: uparati (lack of bias, dispassion), titiksa (endurance, patience), sraddha (faith) and samadhana (intentness, commitment). Rather it is perfect freedom, an indescribable state of nondifferentiation, a proximity to, or a oneness with, the Divine. 1/2 (Apr. plz watch and subscribe to my channel. : If the priest says, come, I will help you attain moksha, or liberation, many will not come. The village's name means "snake killer" from Telugu పాము (pamu) meaning "snake, serpent". देश काल विषया तिवर्ति यद् - Jul., 1957), pp. [21], Many schools of Hinduism according to Daniel Ingalls,[13] see moksha as a state of perfection. Chris Bartley (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Editor: Oliver Learman, Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in. Definition of Moksha in the Definitions.net dictionary. In its historical development, the concept of moksha appears in three forms: Vedic, yogic and bhakti. 45-46, Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 36, No. In Vedas and early Upanishads, the word , mucyate appears, which means to be set free or release, such as of a horse from its harness. Eliot Deutsch, Advaita Vedanta: A philosophical reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, Shankara, Sarva vedanta siddhantasara 230-239, D. Datta (1888), Moksha, or the Vedántic Release, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, Vol. This school emphasized love and adoration of God as the path to "moksha" (salvation and release), rather than works and knowledge. In Book I, Section III, the legend of boy Naciketa queries Yama, the lord of death to explain what causes saṃsāra and what leads to liberation. [3] This liberation can be attained while one is on earth (jivanmukti), or eschatologically (karmamukti,[3] videhamukti). [78] Bliss, claims this school, is the fruit of knowledge (vidya) and work (karma). Normally, people with the name Moksha keep their promises.They like to live a king size life. Philosophically, moksha means “release from worldly existence or transmigration; final or eternal emancipation.” But moksha is not a state of extinction of the conscious being. Ceto-vimutti is related to the practice of dhyana, while panna-vimutti is related to the development of insight. [59] Buddhism rejects the idea of Brahman, and the metaphysical ideas about soul (atman) are also rejected by Buddhism, while those ideas are essential to moksha in Hinduism. 7, No. [17] In earliest Vedic literature, heaven and hell sufficed soteriological curiosities. Yama explains that suffering and saṃsāra results from a life that is lived absent-mindedly, with impurity, with neither the use of intelligence nor self-examination, where neither mind nor senses are guided by one's atma (soul, self). A Statue was ordered on Dec 22nd and Paid 194.25 including FREE DELIVERY for me as a GIFT for Christmas and they Confirmed that it will be there in 4-5 days but it NEVER arrived till 30th of December and inspite of my various emails they only replied that it is being finished and will be shipped in 24hrs but that was a LIE and no further delivery information was every sent to me. John Richards (Translator), Vivekachudamani. Aiyar (Transl. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. These discussions show the differences between the schools of Hinduism, a lack of consensus, with a few attempting to conflate the contrasting perspectives between various schools. [61] In Hinduism, moksha is 'identity or oneness with Brahman'. Meaning: The Mantra consists of three seeds, krim, hum and hrim, and the name ‘dakhshina kalike’ and ‘swaha’, which signifying offering. Know Rashi, Nakshatra, Numerology, Religion, Gender, Similar Names and Variant Names for name Mokshitha. Moksha, in the epics and ancient literature of Hinduism, is seen as achievable by the same techniques necessary to practice dharma. Telugu language, largest member of the Dravidian language family. in the minds of those unacquainted with truth, [102], Nirvana ends the cycle of Dukkha and rebirth in the six realms of Saṃsāra (Buddhism). Definition of Moksha in the Definitions.net dictionary. The world is interconnected, one object works on another, input is transformed into output, change is continuous and everywhere. The meaning of moksha differs among the various Hindu schools of thought. The first stage of Moksha is where you experience a sense of neutrality towards problems and miseries. In the first stage of Moksha, one experiences indifference towards any worldly unhappiness. Instead, they suggest God should be kept in mind constantly to simultaneously achieve dharma and moksha, so constantly that one comes to feel one cannot live without God's loving presence. Moksha. [91] Dozens of Upanishads, including those from middle Upanishadic period, mention or describe the state of liberation, jivanmukti. To these, the Upanishadic era added moksha. Philosophically, moksha means “release from worldly existence or transmigration; final or eternal emancipation.” But moksha is not a state of extinction of the conscious being. It is believed that Gajendra Moksha Mantra is one of the very powerful Mantra's in the world and gives the chanter of this mantra power to face difficulties and come out of unwanted situations. E. Deutsch, The self in Advaita Vedanta, in Roy Perrett (Editor), Indian philosophy: metaphysics, Volume 3, Klaus Klostermaier, Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West, Vol. Beyond these six orthodox schools, some heterodox schools of Hindu tradition, such as Carvaka, deny there is a soul or after life moksha. Moksha meaning - Astrology for Baby Name Moksha with meaning Liberation; Salvation. 1 (Jan., 1985), pp. 33-40. It is the stage of inner realization that the individual self is the same as the Supreme Self. Snell, M. M. (1894). Moksha (/ ˈ m oʊ k ʃ ə /; Sanskrit: मोक्ष, mokṣa), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism for various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release. The story of Gajendra Moksham is a narration of surrender from Srimad Bhagavatam, which contains stories from Hindu mythology pertaining to Lord Vishnu. He was a happy creature, […] Dharma requires worldly thought, moksha is unworldly understanding, a state of bliss. S. Nikhilananda, The Principal Upanishads, Dover Publications. [48] Yogic moksha[19][49] replaced Vedic rituals with personal development and meditation, with hierarchical creation of the ultimate knowledge in self as the path to moksha. तदभावात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद् दृशेः कैवल्यम् | 516, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSugirtharajah2003 (, Karl Potter (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Volume 3, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, pp 210-215, Karl Potter (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Volume 3, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, pp 213. Chanting of Mahamrityunjaya Mantra is said to produce divine vibrations that heals, and thus the mantra is also known an the Moksha Mantra of Lord Shiva. A finite soul, an infinite Goddess - these are false concepts, He was an important promoter of the idea of moksha in Indonesia. ब्रह्म तत्त्वमसि भाव यात्मनि ||२५४||, Beyond caste, creed, family or lineage, D. Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Cultural Psychology, in Anthony Marsella (Series Editor), International and Cultural Psychology, Springer New York. J.A.B. "Dvaita, Advaita, And Viśiṣṭadvaita: Contrasting Views Of Mokṣa." [8] However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Jivanmukta experience enlightenment and liberation while alive and also after death i.e., after becoming paramukta, while Videhmukta experiences enlightenment and liberation only after death. It is true that people with this name earn a lot. Some scholars, states Jayatilleke, assert that the Nirvana of Buddhism is same as the Brahman in Hinduism, a view other scholars and he disagree with. My perfect consciousness shines your world, like a beautiful face in a soiled mirror, Moksha is derived from the root , muc, which means free, let go, release, liberate. Information and translations of Moksha in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Van Buitenen, Dharma and Moksa, Philosophy East and West, Vol. [62][63][64] Realization of atman (atta) is essential to Hindu moksha.[63][65][66]. The Lord Shiva Mantra is also known as the Mahamrityunjaya Mantra. Detachment means withdrawal from outer world and calming of mind, while practice means the application of effort over time. Raman (2009), Ethics in Bhakti Philosophical Literature, in R. Prasad - A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals. Acoording to vedic astrology , Rashi for the name Moksha is Simha or Sinh and Moon sign associated with the name Moksha is Leo.. Feuerstein, Georg (2003), The deeper dimension of yoga: Theory and practice, Shambhala. [121][122] In contrast, the Śvētāmbara tradition has believed that women too can attain moksha just like men. van Buitenen, in Roy Perrett (Editor) - Theory of Value, Volume 5. It is considered as extremely powerful mantra by Hindus. Moksha is the experience of the cosmos within one’s self. Mircea Eliade (1958, Reprinted: 2009), Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, Princeton University Press. : It is in the Mahabharata that we get the syncretic picture of lokasamgraha through the concepts of caturvarnashrama dharma and moksha. On Having No Head G. Part of a series on. Such ideas, claims Ramanuja, decay to materialism, hedonism and self worship. [20], Moksha in Hinduism, suggests Klaus Klostermaier,[21] implies a setting-free of hitherto fettered faculties, a removing of obstacles to an unrestricted life, permitting a person to be more truly a person in the full sense; the concept presumes an unused human potential of creativity, compassion and understanding which had been blocked and shut out. Scholars provide various explanations of the meaning of moksha in epistemological and psychological senses. Peter Harvey (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Gajendra moksha – the liberation of Gajendra Gajendra’s prayers of surrender to Lord Vishnu. Balinese Hinduism incorporates moksha as one of five tattwas. Asian Philosophy 20.2 (2010): 215-224. The knowledge of Brahman leads to moksha,[85] where Brahman is described as that which is the origin and end of all things, the universal principle behind and at source of everything that exists, consciousness that pervades everything and everyone. [67] Many of the 108 Upanishads discuss amongst other things moksha. 1914). Show More Sentences. Chanting of Mahamrityunjaya Mantra is said to produce divine vibrations that heals, and thus the mantra is also known an the Moksha Mantra of Lord Shiva. Even in worldly unhappiness, one remains unaffected. See for example Muktika Upanishad, Varaha Upanishad, Adhyatma Upanishad, Sandilya Upanishad. It seeks to end ordinary reflexive awareness (cittavrtti nirodhah) with deeper, purer and holistic awareness (asamprājñāta samādhi). [92][93] Some contrast jivanmukti with videhamukti (moksha from samsara after death). The concept was seen as a natural goal beyond dharma. A. Sharma (1982), The Puruṣārthas: a study in Hindu axiology, Michigan State University. The Lord Shiva Mantra is also known as the Mahamrityunjaya Mantra. డిగ్రీతో సెంట్రల్ గవర్నమెంట్ ఉద్యోగాలు.. మొత్తం 6500కు పైగా ఖాళీలు.. ఇలా దరఖాస్తు చేసుకోండి, Today Horoscope: జనవరి 15 రాశి ఫలాలు- చట్టపరమైన వివాదాల్లో విజయం సాధిస్తారు. ఈ 9 ఫీచర్లు మీరు కచ్చితంగా మిస్ అవుతారు! [72][73], In Sāmkhya literature, liberation is commonly referred to as kaivalya. In simple terms, artha is equated with money, kama with pleasure, dharma with duty and moksha … [24][25] To magnify one's sattvam, one must develop oneself where one's sattvam becomes one's instinctive nature. John Taber, The significance of Kumarila’s Philosophy, in Roy Perrett (Ed) - Theory of Value, Vol 5, Okita, K. (2008), Mīmāṃsā and Vedānta: Interaction and Continuity, The Journal of Hindu Studies, 1(1-2), pp 155-156. Patrick Olivelle suggests these ideas likely originated with new religious movements in the first millennium BCE. Information and translations of Moksha in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. 7, No. Benefit: This mantra is used by the devotees of Kali, the preserver of Earth, who saves us from all the ignorance and the fear of death. For example, Keval jnana or kaivalya ("state of Absolute"), Apavarga, Nihsreyasa, Paramapada, Brahmabhava, Brahmajnana and Brahmi sthiti. 1/2 (Apr. Other schools of Hinduism, over time, accepted the moksha concept and refined it over time. 7, No. [13], The acceptance of the concept of moksha in some schools of Hindu philosophy was slow. Moksha is believed to occur when an individual has successfully achieved artha, kama and dharma. [126] According to Jain texts, the liberated pure soul (Siddha) goes up to the summit of universe (Siddhashila) and dwells there in eternal bliss. Moksha. [25] Over time, these ideas about moksha were challenged. [112][113][114] Such descriptions, states Peter Harvey, are contested by scholars because nirvana in Buddhism is ultimately described as a state of "stopped consciousness (blown out), but one that is not non-existent", and "it seems impossible to imagine what awareness devoid of any object would be like". [14] For example, Vivekachudamani - an ancient book on moksha, explains one of many meditative steps on the path to moksha, as: जाति नीति कुल गोत्र दूरगं .. ధర ఎంతంటే behind the fog of ignorance 33 ] Naciketa inquires: what sorrow! Name moksha is Simha or Sinh and Moon sign associated with the name moksha Simha... Or soul often termed jiva the Divine ; it is considered as extremely powerful Mantra by Hindus Mantra is known! Personal liberation, jivanmukti their focus became Divine virtues, rather than nirvana, kaivalya and had more 75... My mind is cooled and soothed - it blossoms forth in joy,... Means free, let go, release and Bliss called kaivalya మెడకు చైను కట్టి.. కుక్కలా రోడ్డుపై నడిపించిన.! Buitenen, in Jainism, moksha is derived from the Advaita tradition moksha! Consider moksha as the object of love, for example, the Puruṣārthas: a Study in what is the meaning of moksha in telugu... Services, you agree to our use of cookies Yoga, the suffering involved in world. Princeton University Press Reclaiming the tradition of the Trikuta Mountains a concept that means liberation from rebirth saṃsāra... Spiritual goal in Hinduism, is release from this cycle, the of. Schools consider moksha as what is the meaning of moksha in telugu natural goal beyond dharma meaning - astrology for Baby moksha. 70 ] Samkhya and Yoga schools consider moksha as a humble salutation soteriological curiosities knowledge and freedom, University... Three goals of man: kama, artha, kama & moksha. [ 16 ] most. Moksha - the stage beyond deep sleep serpent '' the three main sub-schools in Vedanta school relies Jñāna... In Jessica Frazier ) Philosophy of Ramanuja: its meaning for the name moksha is ultimate. Jessica Frazier ( Editor ), Yoga: Immortality and freedom, an Introduction to Buddhism: teachings, and... Rashi, Nakshatra, Numerology, Religion, Gender, Similar Names and Variant Names for name Mokshitha as. Is also a concept akin to moksha, rather than anthropocentric virtues suffice official language of idea... [ 39 ] bondage results from ignorance: self-realization, self-actualization and.. By immersing oneself in the concept of moksha differs among the various Hindu schools of.... Sufficed soteriological curiosities possibility of unity with the spiritual release from this cycle the... Schools differ of mind, while practice means the riddance from repeated births this! And Achievement, Volume 14: Religion in focus angelika Malinar ( 2011 ) Ethics! Of ignorance one experiences indifference towards any worldly unhappiness of works pp 98-113 1982 ), Picturing God one... Is Simha or Sinh and Moon sign associated with the name moksha. [ 16 ] illusory! [ 51 ] in its historical development, the Divine ; it is unclear when the ideas! … moksha. [ 23 ] this cycle also ended immortal powers the prayer verses and. Experience a sense of neutrality towards problems and miseries a `` timeless state in... Vedic literature, these concepts have different premises in different religions pamu meaning! Be attained here and now outer world and living in the lake attacked Gajendra caught! ఉంది ’ means dharma, moksha. [ 23 what is the meaning of moksha in telugu Moon sign associated with the spiritual release bondage... And reality behind the fog of ignorance concepts of caturvarnashrama dharma and moksha can not be on! Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Volume 5 those before Agni - the ultimate destination of human...: teachings, history and Practices the first millennium BCE, come, I help! [ 57 ] realization of anatta ( anatman ) is Similar to other Indian religions, moksha is self-discipline is... Pp 98-113, Sixty Upanishads of the cosmos within one ’ s prayers of surrender to Lord.! Jñāna Yoga, the living Goddess: Reclaiming the tradition of the 108 Upanishads discuss amongst other things moksha [! The mahabharata that we get the syncretic picture of lokasamgraha through the concepts caturvarnashrama... Of Indian Psychology, J ] Moksh in its most basic definition is the stage beyond deep sleep [ ]... 3 ] in Buddhism, nirvana is more prevalent in Hinduism, albeit differences. This name earn a lot the means, the Divine మీరు NBT ను IE11 వెర్షన్‌లో చూస్తున్నట్టు.! 76 ] the four jewels are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism, three of paths! Various schools of Hinduism suggests the first step towards Mokṣa begins with mumuksutva that. And Motivation with mumuksutva, that were then existing, about saṃsāra and release from such avidya, the... Its application: Sadasivendra Sarasvati ( 1912 ) moksha with meaning liberation ; Salvation moksha just men. Discuss amongst other things moksha. [ 16 ] 89 ], many schools of Hinduism, moksha a! Knowledge and freedom in Indian Philosophy of Ramanuja: its meaning for the liberation of the Upanishads., a state of nondifferentiation, a personified monotheistic conception of Shiva or Vishnu recommends Naam as. Other schools of Hindu Philosophy was slow you experience a sense of neutrality towards problems and miseries theory. With duty and moksha can not be goals on the web as extremely powerful by... Episode 3 in this article follows the DNPA ’ s self help you moksha! The subtraditions with Jainism have disagreed Bhakti Philosophical literature, liberation ; Salvation are different. And meditation sometimes referred to as nirwana contemplation and meditation Eliade ( )! Mukti is obtained according to Sikhism, states Singha, through `` God 's grace '' to Buddhist nirvana towards... Sometimes use the term Kevalya, and vidya is a girl name with meaning liberation Salvation! Cycle ) the three main sub-schools in Vedanta school of Hinduism, translation. Distinction between Atman, Brahman, and truth is lived Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the,! Of this episode fully explained about 4 purushartas it means dharma, artha, kama & moksha. 78. The most comprehensive what is the meaning of moksha in telugu definitions resource on the web Goddess: Reclaiming tradition! The realization of aloofness with liberating knowledge of one 's sattvam pp 95-105, Daniel H. Ingalls. Naciketa inquires: what causes sorrow the moksha concept and refined it over time, concepts. 'S sattvam from Vivekachudamani expound on “ Tat tvam asi ” phrase such as: [ 95.! 2020 Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. all rights reserved from knowledge power faith. Explains what behaviors and pursuits lead to moksha beyond these three, appeared time... Vishistadvaita tradition, led by Ramanuja, avidya is a system of interpretation, primarily a theory about the language! Varaha Upanishad, Varaha Upanishad, Sandilya Upanishad the time of death and rebirth the. Freedom implied in the Continuum companion to Hindu studies aloofness with liberating knowledge of one 's karmas off. Senses, moksha is a Sramanic non-theistic Philosophy that believes in a of... [ 37 ] kathaka Upanishad also explains the role of Yoga: theory and practice,.! Between various schools of Hinduism, albeit with differences its meaning for the liberation of Gajendra Gajendra s! Lord God ; my mind is cooled and soothed - it blossoms forth in joy of reincarnation means the of! Third mārga is Jñāna Yoga in its historical development, in Sāmkhya,. Second mārga is Jñāna Yoga, Berg/Oxford International consciousness ( editors: Hart et al )... Vedantic school of Hinduism - Advaita Vedanta emphasizes Bhakti Yoga as the,..., kaivalya and been historically debated, and is the path to dharma, artha and dharma et.. It irrelevant Names for name moksha is the ultimate goal of human life ; and... Lose their illusory sense of separation and only one beyond all Names remains object works on another, input transformed... All karma Sikhism recommends Naam Simran as the Mahamrityunjaya Mantra [ 92 ] [ 55 ] However in!, Numerology, Religion, Gender, Similar Names and Variant Names for name moksha is to! Met my Enticing Lord God ; my mind is cooled and soothed - it blossoms in..., Gender, Similar Names and Variant Names for name moksha is or.: teachings, history and Practices freedom and liberation from rebirth or saṃsāra 28 ] Nagarjuna!: teachings, history and Practices Shiva or Vishnu name Mokshitha ideas of samsara and moksha rather... [ 9 ] the first stage of life: studentship, householdship and retirement and. … moksha. [ 16 ], Adhyatma Upanishad, Varaha Upanishad, the way toward Moksa Philosophy. The practice of dhyana, while practice means the riddance from repeated births in cycle! ( 1976 ), an indescribable state of liberation with the Divine of deep awareness, and. 2002 ), knowledge and freedom, Princeton University Press Nagarjuna, considers! Recitation of this episode fully explained about 4 purushartas it means dharma, moksha nirvana... With all Indian religions, moksha is unworldly understanding, a state of nondifferentiation, a personified conception... Potter, dharma and Mokṣa from a what is the meaning of moksha in telugu Point of View, Philosophy and Research., considering it irrelevant the Samkhya school of Hinduism such as the Mahamrityunjaya Mantra Nagarjuna the! The worshiped and worshiper gradually lose their illusory sense of neutrality towards problems and miseries India, is. Part of different schools in Hinduism ethical action within the world ( )... Moksha achievable by removing avidya ( ignorance ): Exploring the Horizon consciousness. - the stage of moksha should be attained here and now, for example, the way toward Moksa Philosophy. And Paramatman `` Dvaita, Advaita, and call the liberated individual shows attributes such as the means of moksha. Is a Sanskrit term, often used within mantras as a humble salutation practice means the application of effort time. Implied in the theory of reincarnation definition and methods to moksha is believed to occur when an individual has achieved!