Surrounding the Step Pyramid, the first ever built, and its complex is a very beautiful and elaborate wall. Who is the god there? 6 Then Joseph, all his brothers, and that entire generation died. When Joseph reported having dreams of his brothers, and even the stars and moon, bowing before him, their jealousy of Joseph grew into action. As a result, the land was filled with them. David Rohl, author of Test of Time, suggests ‘Ramses II should be dated to the tenth century BC—some three hundred and fifty years later than the date which had been assigned him in the orthodox chronology.’1 Peter James and four other scholars published the book Centuries of Dar… Every city had stored grain from its region, but at this complex at Sakarra, we have these massive pits which would have stored an incredible amount of grain- more than a single city would have needed. 2) “One plans the morrow but knows not what will be”. Could “Im” have been “I AM”? The Bible is quite clear on his high rank under the pharaoh: GEN 41:40 Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou. would take to implement this plan. This statement indicates that the concept of a “proverb” was known to the ancient peoples. for the royal granaries[2]. A great deal has been written about this complex, and most mention the uniqueness of it- something they cannot explain. Jacob had children with her sister Leah (see Genesis 29), and Rachel became jealous. As you exit this colonade and walk straight ahead, you come to a series of very large pits which extend deep into the earth. Last of all, grain was found in the floor of these pits, which has been explained by Egyptologists as having been from foods buried with deceased who were buried there- however, no evidence of burials was ever found in these pits. 9And he said to his people, “Look, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we; 10come, let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and it happen, in the event of war, that they also join our enemies and fight against us, and so go up out of the land.” (Exodus 1:8-10). And in ancient Egypt, the people didn’t live too much longer than about 50. The standard practice was for the pharaoh always to appoint men to office as soon as he took the throne, with family members being the highest ranked. After Joseph interpreted the dreams of Pharaoh, the king elevated him to the highest office under the crown. We also find parallels in other Books, such as Psalms and Ecclesiastes: 6) “If every word is carried on, they will not perish in the land.”. In fact, it sounds as if Joseph was the first person ever given such honor by a pharaoh, which is confirmed by evidences in Egypt. Abraham left Haran in about 1921 BC, about 427 years later. “Imhotep, the Voice of the God, Im (I AM)” One of them was Joseph, the favorite son of Jacob. In the Biblical account, we learn that Joseph appointed men throughout the land of Egypt to oversee the gathering and storing of the grain in all the cities: GEN 41:34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land, and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years. This is the beginning of the period of affliction prophesied in Genesis 15.  The most likely cause of a “new king” is a dynastic transition. Looking at the history of Egypt in this period, according to the orthodox chronology, and the details of the text, there are a couple of candidates for this role.  The most obvious one is Amenhotep I.  Before we consider any candidate, we first must allow sufficient time before the exodus for the events in Moses’ life as shown in Figure 2.  The exodus occurred when Moses was eighty years old which, based on an exodus in 1446 BC, places his birth in 1526 BC at the very end of the reign of Amenhotep I or the beginning of the reign of Thutmose I.  Thus, Amenhotep is the las tpossible candidate to be the new king. Amenhotep is also the first Pharaoh of a new dynasty, the 18th,even though he was the son of the last 17th dynasty Pharaoh.  Amenhotep was responsible for reasserting control over lower Egypt and the oases of the western desert, beginning a new period of a united Egypt and ending the Second Intermediate period.  Given the duration of the Second Intermediate period (about 250 years) it would be quite natural that he would be unaware of the contribution of Joseph.  At the same time, he would be naturally suspicious of the Asiatic population in the Nile delta, Hebrews and others, having just reasserted control over that area.  This would explain his behavior in Exodus 1:10 in enslaving, or perhaps further enslaving the children of Israel.  There is little doubt that either Amenhotep I or his son Tutmose I is the Pharaoh that gave the command to kill all the newborn Hebrew males (Exodus 1:16). The unnamed pharaoh, through his princes, hears of the beauty of Abraham's wife Sarah who is summoned to meet him. Aling, There is an Egyptian vizier known as ‘Anku’ who served from the reign of Amenemhat III through to the reign of Sobekhotep I in the thirteenth dynasty. David; Exodus: Myth or History; St. 10) “If you are one among guests at the table of one greater than you, take what he gives as it is set before you.”. The time of the 300 Year Gap If there is no God, where did this idea of “religion and gods” come from? Imhotep was not the architect of Djoser’s tomb built at Beit Khallaf, which was probably undertaken soon after he became king. 1664-1555 BC) this cannot be reconciled with the biblical information. The inscription then goes on to record Djoser’s promise to the Nile god, Khnum, in which the people were to be taxed 1/10 of everything, except for the priests of the “house of the god”, who would be exempted. Is the ancient Egyptian named Imhotep the same person as the biblical Joseph? This vizier was initially Overseer of the Fields and was responsible for the construction of numerous granaries. Who is the god? While Egyptologist attempt to date the events of Joseph in the Hyksos period which they date (ca. [3] Aling,Charles, PhD; “Joseph in Egypt, Part I – Part VI”, Associates for Biblical Research.  Originally published in Bible and Spade from 2000 to 2003 the series was republished at www.biblearchaology.orgfrom February through April, 2010.  Links are provided in the bibliography. Now Joseph was already in Egypt. 60.) At the end of these manuscripts, the writer states that he is near death, having lived 110 years and that he received honors from the king exceeding those of the ancestors,- in other words, he received the most honors ever given a man by a pharaoh. We know that his wisdom came from the true God of Abraham. Pharaoh Sesostris I is identified as the pharaoh who appointed Joseph over Egypt, with Joseph himself possibly being identified as Mentuhotep, Sesostris’ vizier or prime minister. Now, let’s do some assuming for a moment- let’s assume that Joseph wrote a collection of wise sayings, of course, inspired by God. Ramses II lived and ruled for an extremely long time, and as a very old man was still the titular pharaoh when Moses was born in 1220 BC. And then there was the coat of many colors, a visible sign of Israel’s favor for Joseph. (Galatians 3:17). JOH 8:58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am. These Bible activities highlight this important time in Joseph’s life. And there is good evidence that it was at this time that the regulation prohibiting the Egyptians from eating, drinking or fraternizing with foreign shepherds was instituted. Remember, it was Joseph’s dream about he and his brothers binding sheaves- their sheaves stood up and bowed to his- that was one of the causes of their great jealousy of him. Does this fit what we know of Joseph? There is also a picture in the tomb of Tehuti-hetep in Bersheh which has a picture of a herd of Syrian cattle entering Egypt with the inscription: “Once you trod the Syrian sands. He then ordered his men to escort Abraham and his entourage out of Egypt. Intermediate Period (2000-1500 BC in the orthodox chronology). For many years, Egyptologists had doubted that Imhotep had been a real person- they found it rather difficult to believe the various accomplishments credited to him in the accounts written over a thousand years after he was supposed to have lived. Imhotep tells him he must consult the god because the answer is not in him. Ancient Greek writings mention a great sanctuary at Memphis where people came from everywhere to seek cures from Imhotep. 4) “If you are a man of trust, sent by one great man to another, adhere to the nature of him who sent you, give his message as he said it.”. Joseph is made the Chief Steward of the King, a role that historically (Exodus 12:40, Septuagint – NETS). (Gen. 46:34). 14And also the nation whom they serve I will judge; afterward they shall come outwith great possessions. See Section III, 2. This follows the Masoretic text, which is the version of the ancient Hebrew used as the basis for most Christian bibles.  However, the Septuagint, a translation from Hebrew to Greek from the third century BC states: Now the residence of the sons of Israel during which they dwelt in the land, Egypt, and in the land of Chanaan, was four hundred and thirty years. We believe it is Sakkara to which they came- where the remains of this fantastic complex are preserved. And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words. GEN 41:16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace. Joseph to implement the plan that he had suggested to Pharaoh: to store up a Does this fit the Biblical account? The base was inscribed with the names of Djoser and of “Imhotep, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Chief under the King, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary Lord, High Priest of Heliopolis, Imhotep the Builder, the Sculptor, the Maker of Stone Vases…”. But it in fact exhibits every feature indicative of being a center of great activity, a feature which again fits with the story of Joseph. But, we all know the God, “I AM”: EXO 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. 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